CombineValues

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Combines an iterable of values in a keyed collection of elements.

See more information in the Beam Programming Guide.

Examples

In the following examples, we create a pipeline with a PCollection of produce. Then, we apply CombineValues in multiple ways to combine the keyed values in the PCollection.

CombineValues accepts a function that takes an iterable of elements as an input, and combines them to return a single element. CombineValues expects a keyed PCollection of elements, where the value is an iterable of elements to be combined.

Example 1: Combining with a predefined function

We use the function sum which takes an iterable of numbers and adds them together.

import apache_beam as beam

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  total = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create produce counts' >> beam.Create([
          ('πŸ₯•', [3, 2]),
          ('πŸ†', [1]),
          ('πŸ…', [4, 5, 3]),
      ])
      | 'Sum' >> beam.CombineValues(sum)
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('πŸ₯•', 5)
('πŸ†', 1)
('πŸ…', 12)
View source code View source code




Example 2: Combining with a function

We want the sum to be bounded up to a maximum value, so we use saturated arithmetic.

We define a function saturated_sum which takes an iterable of numbers and adds them together, up to a predefined maximum number.

import apache_beam as beam

def saturated_sum(values):
  max_value = 8
  return min(sum(values), max_value)

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  saturated_total = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create plant counts' >> beam.Create([
          ('πŸ₯•', [3, 2]),
          ('πŸ†', [1]),
          ('πŸ…', [4, 5, 3]),
      ])
      | 'Saturated sum' >> beam.CombineValues(saturated_sum)
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('πŸ₯•', 5)
('πŸ†', 1)
('πŸ…', 8)
View source code View source code




Example 3: Combining with a lambda function

We can also use lambda functions to simplify Example 2.

import apache_beam as beam

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  saturated_total = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create plant counts' >> beam.Create([
          ('πŸ₯•', [3, 2]),
          ('πŸ†', [1]),
          ('πŸ…', [4, 5, 3]),
      ])
      | 'Saturated sum' >>
      beam.CombineValues(lambda values: min(sum(values), 8))
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('πŸ₯•', 5)
('πŸ†', 1)
('πŸ…', 8)
View source code View source code




Example 4: Combining with multiple arguments

You can pass functions with multiple arguments to CombineValues. They are passed as additional positional arguments or keyword arguments to the function.

In this example, the lambda function takes values and max_value as arguments.

import apache_beam as beam

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  saturated_total = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create plant counts' >> beam.Create([
          ('πŸ₯•', [3, 2]),
          ('πŸ†', [1]),
          ('πŸ…', [4, 5, 3]),
      ])
      | 'Saturated sum' >> beam.CombineValues(
          lambda values, max_value: min(sum(values), max_value), max_value=8)
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('πŸ₯•', 5)
('πŸ†', 1)
('πŸ…', 8)
View source code View source code




Example 5: Combining with side inputs as singletons

If the PCollection has a single value, such as the average from another computation, passing the PCollection as a singleton accesses that value.

In this example, we pass a PCollection the value 8 as a singleton. We then use that value as the max_value for our saturated sum.

import apache_beam as beam

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  max_value = pipeline | 'Create max_value' >> beam.Create([8])

  saturated_total = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create plant counts' >> beam.Create([
          ('πŸ₯•', [3, 2]),
          ('πŸ†', [1]),
          ('πŸ…', [4, 5, 3]),
      ])
      | 'Saturated sum' >> beam.CombineValues(
          lambda values,
          max_value: min(sum(values), max_value),
          max_value=beam.pvalue.AsSingleton(max_value))
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('πŸ₯•', 5)
('πŸ†', 1)
('πŸ…', 8)
View source code View source code




Example 6: Combining with side inputs as iterators

If the PCollection has multiple values, pass the PCollection as an iterator. This accesses elements lazily as they are needed, so it is possible to iterate over large PCollections that won’t fit into memory.

import apache_beam as beam

def bounded_sum(values, data_range):
  min_value = min(data_range)
  result = sum(values)
  if result < min_value:
    return min_value
  max_value = max(data_range)
  if result > max_value:
    return max_value
  return result

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  data_range = pipeline | 'Create data_range' >> beam.Create([2, 4, 8])

  bounded_total = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create plant counts' >> beam.Create([
          ('πŸ₯•', [3, 2]),
          ('πŸ†', [1]),
          ('πŸ…', [4, 5, 3]),
      ])
      | 'Bounded sum' >> beam.CombineValues(
          bounded_sum, data_range=beam.pvalue.AsIter(data_range))
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('πŸ₯•', 5)
('πŸ†', 2)
('πŸ…', 8)
View source code View source code




Note: You can pass the PCollection as a list with beam.pvalue.AsList(pcollection), but this requires that all the elements fit into memory.

Example 7: Combining with side inputs as dictionaries

If a PCollection is small enough to fit into memory, then that PCollection can be passed as a dictionary. Each element must be a (key, value) pair. Note that all the elements of the PCollection must fit into memory for this. If the PCollection won’t fit into memory, use beam.pvalue.AsIter(pcollection) instead.

import apache_beam as beam

def bounded_sum(values, data_range):
  min_value = data_range['min']
  result = sum(values)
  if result < min_value:
    return min_value
  max_value = data_range['max']
  if result > max_value:
    return max_value
  return result

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  data_range = pipeline | 'Create data_range' >> beam.Create([
      ('min', 2),
      ('max', 8),
  ])

  bounded_total = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create plant counts' >> beam.Create([
          ('πŸ₯•', [3, 2]),
          ('πŸ†', [1]),
          ('πŸ…', [4, 5, 3]),
      ])
      | 'Bounded sum' >> beam.CombineValues(
          bounded_sum, data_range=beam.pvalue.AsDict(data_range))
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('πŸ₯•', 5)
('πŸ†', 2)
('πŸ…', 8)
View source code View source code




Example 8: Combining with a CombineFn

The more general way to combine elements, and the most flexible, is with a class that inherits from CombineFn.

import apache_beam as beam

class AverageFn(beam.CombineFn):
  def create_accumulator(self):
    return {}

  def add_input(self, accumulator, input):
    # accumulator == {}
    # input == 'πŸ₯•'
    if input not in accumulator:
      accumulator[input] = 0  # {'πŸ₯•': 0}
    accumulator[input] += 1  # {'πŸ₯•': 1}
    return accumulator

  def merge_accumulators(self, accumulators):
    # accumulators == [
    #     {'πŸ₯•': 1, 'πŸ…': 1},
    #     {'πŸ₯•': 1, 'πŸ…': 1, 'πŸ†': 1},
    # ]
    merged = {}
    for accum in accumulators:
      for item, count in accum.items():
        if item not in merged:
          merged[item] = 0
        merged[item] += count
    # merged == {'πŸ₯•': 2, 'πŸ…': 2, 'πŸ†': 1}
    return merged

  def extract_output(self, accumulator):
    # accumulator == {'πŸ₯•': 2, 'πŸ…': 2, 'πŸ†': 1}
    total = sum(accumulator.values())  # 5
    percentages = {item: count / total for item, count in accumulator.items()}
    # percentages == {'πŸ₯•': 0.4, 'πŸ…': 0.4, 'πŸ†': 0.2}
    return percentages

with beam.Pipeline() as pipeline:
  percentages_per_season = (
      pipeline
      | 'Create produce' >> beam.Create([
          ('spring', ['πŸ₯•', 'πŸ…', 'πŸ₯•', 'πŸ…', 'πŸ†']),
          ('summer', ['πŸ₯•', 'πŸ…', '🌽', 'πŸ…', 'πŸ…']),
          ('fall', ['πŸ₯•', 'πŸ₯•', 'πŸ…', 'πŸ…']),
          ('winter', ['πŸ†', 'πŸ†']),
      ])
      | 'Average' >> beam.CombineValues(AverageFn())
      | beam.Map(print))

Output:

('spring', {'πŸ₯•': 0.4, 'πŸ…': 0.4, 'πŸ†': 0.2})
('summer', {'πŸ₯•': 0.2, 'πŸ…': 0.6, '🌽': 0.2})
('fall', {'πŸ₯•': 0.5, 'πŸ…': 0.5})
('winter', {'πŸ†': 1.0})
View source code View source code




You can use the following combiner transforms:

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